Egyptian Chronology

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Early Dynastic Period414 years       3100-2686 BC  


Dynasty I ruled for 210 years (3100-2890)
The First Dynasty of ancient Egypt (or Dynasty I, c. 3100 – c. 2890 BC) covers the first series of Egyptian kings to rule over a unified Egypt. It immediately follows the unification of Upper and Lower Egypt, possibly by Narmer, and marks the beginning of Egyptian historical times. Wikipedia »
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Narmer (ca 3100)  
Aha (ca 3100)  
Djer (ca 3000)  
Djet (ca 2980)  
Queen Merneith (ca 2950)  
Den (ca 2950)  
Anedjib (ca 2925)  
Semerkhet (ca 2900)  
Qu'a (ca 2890)  




Dynasty II ruled for 204 years (2890-2686)
The Second Dynasty of ancient Egypt (or Dynasty II, c. 2890 – c. 2686 BC) is the latter of the two dynasties of the Egyptian Archaic Period, when the seat of government was centred at Thinis. Save for the time of its last ruler Khasekhemwy, it marks one of the most obscure periods in ancient Egyptian history.
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Hetepsekhemwy (ca 2890)  
Raneb (ca 2865)  
Nynetjer (ca 2865)  
Weneg (ca 2865)  
Sened (ca 2865)  
Peribsen (ca 2700)  
Khasekhemwy (ca 2686)  


Old Kingdom505 years       2686-2181 BC  


Dynasty III ruled for 73 years (2686-2613)
The Third Dynasty of ancient Egypt is the first dynasty of the Old Kingdom. Other dynasties of the Old Kingdom include the Fourth, Fifth and Sixth. The capital during the period of the Old Kingdom was at Memphis. After the turbulent last years of the Second Dynasty which may have included civil war, Egypt came under the rule of Djoser and this marks the beginning of the Third Dynasty.Both the Turin King List and the Abydos King List record five kings, while the Saqqara Tablet only records four. Wikipedia »

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Sanakht (2686-2667)  
Djoser (2667-2648)  
Sekhemkhet (2648-2640)  
Khaba (2640-2637)  
Huni (2637-2613)  




Dynasty IV ruled for 119 years (2613-2494)
The Fourth Dynasty of ancient Egypt (notated Dynasty IV or Dynasty 4) is characterized as a "golden age" of the Old Kingdom. Dynasty IV lasted from ca. 2613 to 2494 BC. It was a time of peace and prosperity as well as one during which trade with other countries is documented.
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Sneferu (2613-2589)  
Khufu (Cheops) (2589-2566)  
Djedefra (Radjedef) (2566-2558)  
Khafra (Chephren) (2558-2532)  
Menkaura (Mykerinus) (2532-2503)  
Shepseskaf (2503-2498)  




Dynasty V ruled for 149 years (2494-2345)
The Fifth Dynasty of ancient Egypt (notated Dynasty V) is often combined with Dynasties III, IV and VI under the group title the Old Kingdom. The Fifth Dynasty dates approximately from 2494 to 2345 BC.
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Userkaf (2494-2487)  
Sahura (2487-2475)  
Neferirkara (2475-2455)  
Shepseskara (2455-2448)  
Raneferef (2448-2445)  
Nyuserra (2445-2421)  
Menkauhor (2421-2414)  
Djedkara (2414-2375)  
Unas (2375-2345)  




Dynasty VI ruled for 164 years (2345-2181)
The Sixth Dynasty of ancient Egypt (notated Dynasty VI) is often combined with Dynasties III, IV and V under the group title the Old Kingdom.
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Teti (2345-2323)  
Userkara (2323-2321)  
Pepy I (2321-2287)  
Merenra (2287-2278)  
Pepy II (2278-2184)  
Nitiqret (2184-2181)  


First Intermediate Period126 years       2181-2055 BC  


Dynasty VII & VIII ruled for 56 years (2181-2125)
The Seventh and Eighth Dynasties of ancient Egypt (notated Dynasties VII and VIII) are often combined with Dynasties IX, X and XI (Thebes only) under the group title First Intermediate Period. The Dynasties VII and VIII date approximately from 2181 to 2160 BC.
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Numerous ephemeral kings


Dynasty IX & X ruled for 135 years (2160-2025)
The Ninth Dynasty of ancient Egypt (notated Dynasty IX) is often combined with Dynasties VII, VIII, X and XI (Thebes only) under the group title First Intermediate Period. Dynasties IX and X date approximately from 2160 to 2025 BC. The dynasty that seems to have supplanted the 8th Dynasty is extremely obscure. The takeover by the rulers of Herakleopolis was violent and is reflected in Manetho's description of Akhtoy I, the founder of the dynasty, as 'more terrible than his predecessors', who 'wrought evil things for those in all Egypt".
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Khety (Meryibra)
Khety (Wahkara)
Merykara
Middle Kingdom405 years       2055-1650 BC  


Dynasty XI ruled for 70 years (2055-1985)
The Eleventh Dynasty of ancient Egypt (notated Dynasty XI) was one group of rulers, whose earlier members are grouped with the four preceding dynasties to form the First Intermediate Period, while the later members are considered part of the Middle Kingdom. They all ruled from Thebes.
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Mentuhotep II (2055-2004)  
Mentuhotep III (2004-1992)  
Mentuhotep IV (1992-1985)  




Dynasty XII ruled for 190 years (1985-1795)
The Twelfth Dynasty of ancient Egypt (Dynasty XII), is often combined with Dynasties XI, XIII and XIV under the group title Middle Kingdom.
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There are some overlaps between the reigns of 12th-Dynasty kings when they appear to have been "coregencies" during which father and son would have ruled simultaneously.

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Amenemhat I (1985-1955)  
Senusret I (1965-1920)  
Amenemhat II (1922-1878)  
Senusret II (1880-1874)  
Senusret III (1874-1855)  
Amenemhat III (1855-1808)  
Amenemhat IV (1808-1799)  
Sobekneferu (1799-1795)  




Dynasty XIII ruled for 145 years (1795-1650)
The Thirteenth Dynasty of ancient Egypt (notated Dynasty XIII) is often combined with Dynasties XI, XII and XIV under the group title Middle Kingdom. Some writers separate it from these dynasties and join it to Dynasties XIV through XVII as part of the Second Intermediate Period. Dynasty XIII lasted from approximately 1802 BC until approximately 1649 BC, i.e. for 153 years.
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Some seventy rulers, of which the five more frequently attested are listed below:
Hor (Awibra)
Khendjer
Sobekhotep III
Neferhotep I
Sobekhotep IV


Dynasty XIV ruled for 100 years (1750-1650)
The Eleventh (all of Egypt), Twelfth, Thirteenth and Fourteenth Dynasties of ancient Egypt are often combined under the group title, Middle Kingdom, though this dynasty overlaps partially with either (or both of) the Thirteenth Dynasty or the Fifteenth Dynasty, during the Second Intermediate Period.
It is associated with the Delta region of Egypt, and may have ruled from Xois, though for only little more than 100 years. Its rulers may have been related to the Hyksos, though they are very frequently identified as being of Semitic origin, owing to the distinct origins of the names of some of their Kings, like Ya... Wikipedia »

Minor rulers probably contemporary with the 13th Dynasty
Second Intermediate Period100 years       1650-1550 BC  


Dynasty XV ruled for 100 years (1650-1550)
The Fifteenth, Sixteenth and Seventeenth Dynasties of ancient Egypt are often combined under the group title, Second Intermediate Period. The Fifteenth Dynasty dates approximately from 1650 to 1550 BC.
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Known rulers of the Fifteenth Dynasty are as follows:
Salitis
Khyan (Seuserenra)
Apepi (Aauserra)
Khamudi


Dynasty XVI & XVII ruled for 100 years (1650-1550)
The Sixteenth Dynasty of ancient Egypt (notated Dynasty XVI) was a dynasty of pharaohs that ruled in Upper Egypt for 50 years during the late Second Intermediate Period (c. 1650-1550 BCE), a period that saw the division of Upper and Lower Egypt between the pharaohs at Thebes and the Hyksos kings at Avaris.
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Rulers based in Thebes, of which the three most prominent examples are listed below:
Intef (Nubkheperra)
Seqenenra Taa
Kamose (Wadjkheperra)
New Kingdom481 years       1550-1069 BC  


Dynasty XVIII ruled for 255 years (1550-1295)
The Eighteenth Dynasty of ancient Egypt (notated Dynasty XVIII) (c. 1550–c. 1292 BC) is perhaps the best known of all the dynasties of ancient Egypt. As well as boasting a number of Egypt's most famous pharaohs, it included Tutankhamun, the finding of whose tomb by Howard Carter in 1922 was a sensational archaeological discovery despite its having been twice disturbed by tomb robbers. Wikipedia »
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Ahmose I (1550-1525)  
Amenhotep I (1525-1504)  
Thutmose I (1504-1492)  
Thutmose II (1492-1479)  
Thutmose III (1479-1425)  
Hatshepsut (1473-1458)  
Amenhotep II (1427-1400)  
Thutmose IV (1400-1390)  
Amenhotep III (1390-1352)  
Akhenaten (1352-1336)  
Neferneferuaten (1338-1336)  
Tutankhamun (1336-1327)  
Ay (1327-1323)  
Horemheb (1323-1295)  




Dynasty XIX ruled for 109 years (1295-1186)
The Nineteenth Dynasty of ancient Egypt (notated Dynasty XIX) was one of the periods of the Egyptian New Kingdom. Founded by Vizier Ramesses I, whom Pharaoh Horemheb chose as his successor to the throne, this dynasty is best known for its military conquests in Canaan.
The warrior kings of the early 18th Dynasty had encountered only little resistance from neighbouring kingdoms, allowing them to expand their realm of influence easily. The situation had changed radically towards the end of the 18th Dynasty. Wikipedia »
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Rameses I (1295-1294)  
Sety I (1294-1279)  
Rameses II (1279-1213)  
Merenptah (1213-1203)  
Amenmessu (1203-1200)  
Sety II (1200-1194)  
Saptah (1194-1188)  
Tausert (1188-1187)  




Dynasty XX ruled for 117 years (1186-1069)
The Eighteenth, Nineteenth, and Twentieth Dynasties of ancient Egypt are often combined under the group title, New Kingdom. This dynasty is considered to be the last one of the New Kingdom of Egypt, and was followed by the Third Intermediate Period.
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Setnakhte (1186-1184)  
Rameses III (1184-1153)  
Rameses IV (1153-1147)  
Rameses V (1147-1143)  
Rameses VI (1143-1136)  
Rameses VII (1136-1129)  
Rameses VIII (1129-1126)  
Rameses IX (1126-1108)  
Rameses X (1108-1099)  
Rameses XI (1099-1069)  


Third Intermediate Period322 years       1069-747 BC  


Dynasty XXI ruled for 124 years (1069-945)
The Twenty-First, Twenty-Second, Twenty-Third, Twenty-Fourth, and Twenty-Fifth Dynasties of ancient Egypt are often combined under the group title, Third Intermediate Period.
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Smendes (1069-1043)  
Amenemnisu (1043-1039)  
Psusennes I (1039-991)  
Amenemope (993-984)  
Osorkon the Elder (984-978)  
Siamun (978-959)  
Psusennes II (959-945)  




Dynasty XXII ruled for 230 years (945-715)
The Twenty-First, Twenty-Second, Twenty-Third, Twenty-Fourth and Twenty-Fifth Dynasties of ancient Egypt are often combined under the group title, Third Intermediate Period.
The 22nd dynasty is also known as the Bubastite Dynasty, since the pharoahs originally ruled from the city of Bubastis. It was founded by Osorkon the Elder, the first Libyan pharaoh of Egypt.
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Sheshonq I (945-924)  
Osorkon I (924-889)  
Sheshenq II (ca 890)  
Takelot I (889-874)  
Osorkon II (874-850)  
Takelot II (850-825)  
Sheshenq III (825-773)  
Pimay (773-767)  
Shoshenq V (767-730)  
Osorkon IV (730-715)  




Dynasty XXIII ruled for 103 years (818-715)
The Twenty-third Dynasty of ancient Egypt was a separate regime of Meshwesh Berber Libyan kings, who ruled ancient Egypt. This dynasty is often considered part of the Third Intermediate Period.
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Several contemporary lines of rulers at Heraklopolis Magna, Hermopolis Magna, Leontopolis and Tanis, only three whom are listed below.

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Pedubastis I (818-793)  
Sheshonq IV (ca 780)  
Osorkon III (777-749)  




Dynasty XXIV ruled for 12 years (727-715)
The Twenty-First, Twenty-Second, Twenty-Third, Twenty-Fourth and Twenty-Fifth Dynasties of ancient Egypt are often combined under the group title, Third Intermediate Period.
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Bakenrenef (727-715)  


Late Period415 years       747-332 BC  


Dynasty XXV ruled for 91 years (747-656)
The Twenty-fifth Dynasty of Egypt, known as the Nubian Dynasty or the Kushite Empire, was the last dynasty of the Third Intermediate Period of Ancient Egypt.
The 25th dynasty was a line of rulers originating in the Nubian Kingdom of Kush and most saw Napata as their spiritual homeland. They reigned in part or all of Ancient Egypt from 760 BC to 656 BC. The dynasty began with Kashta's invasion of Upper Egypt and culminated in several years of unsuccessful war with the Mesopotamian based Assyrian Empire which was to result in the destruction of the Kushite Empire, the ejecting of the Nubians and conquest of Egypt by Assyria. Wikipedia »
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Piy (747-716)  
Shabaqo (716-702)  
Shabitqo (702-690)  
Taharqo (690-664)  
Tanutamani (664-656)  




Dynasty XXVI ruled for 139 years (664-525)
The Twenty-sixth Dynasty of Egypt (also written Dynasty XXVI or Dynasty 26) was the last native dynasty to rule Egypt before the Persian conquest in 525 BC (although others followed). The Dynasty's reign (c. 685–525 BC) is also called the Saite Period after the city of Sais, where its pharaohs had their capital, and marks the beginning of the Late Period of ancient Egypt.
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Psamtek I (664-610)  
Nekau II (610-595)  
Psamtek II (595-589)  
Ahmose II (589-570)  
Psamtek III (526-525)  




Dynasty XXVII ruled for 121 years (525-404)
The history of Achaemenid Egypt is divided into two eras: an initial period of Achaemenid Persian occupation when Egypt (Old Persian: 𐎸𐎭𐎼𐎠𐎹 Mudrāya) became a satrapy, followed by an interval of independence; and a second period of occupation, again under the Achaemenids.
The last pharaoh of the Twenty-Sixth dynasty, Psamtik III, was defeated by Cambyses II of Persia in the battle of Pelusium in the eastern Nile delta in 525 BC. Egypt was then joined with Cyprus and Phoenicia in the sixth satrapy of the Achaemenid Empire. Thus began the first period of Persian rule over Egypt (also known as the ... Wikipedia »
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Cambyses (525-522)  
Darius I (522-486)  
Xerxes I (486-465)  
Artaxerxes I (465-424)  
Darius II (424-405)  
Artaxerxes II (405-359)  




Dynasty XXVIII ruled for 5 years (404-399)
The Twenty-Eighth Dynasty is often combined with other groupings of rulers of ancient Egypt under the title, Late Period. These other groupings include the Twenty-Sixth, Twenty-Seventh, Twenty-Ninth, Thirtieth, and Thirty-First dynasties.
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Amyrtaios (404-399)  




Dynasty XXIX ruled for 19 years (399-380)
Nepherites I founded the Twenty-ninth Dynasty of ancient Egypt (according to an account preserved in a papyrus in the Brooklyn Museum) by defeating Amyrtaeus in open battle, and later putting him to death at Memphis. Nepherites made his capital at Mendes. This brief dynasty is often considered part of the Late Period.
On Nepherites' death, two rival factions fought for the throne: one behind his son Muthis, and the other supporting an usurper Psammuthes; although Psammuthes was successful, he only managed to reign for a year.
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Nepherites I (399-393)  
Hakor (393-380)  
Nepherites II (ca 380)  




Dynasty XXX ruled for 37 years (380-343)
The Thirtieth Dynasty of ancient Egypt followed Nectanebo I's deposition of Nefaarud II, the son of Hakor. This dynasty is often considered part of the Late Period.
Nectanebo I had gained control of all of Egypt by November of 380 BC, but spent much of his reign defending his kingdom from Persian reconquest with the occasional help of Sparta or Athens. In 365, Nectanebo made his son Teos co-king and heir, and until his death in 363 father and son reigned together. Wikipedia »
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Nectanebo I (380-362)  
Teos (362-360)  
Nectanebo II (360-343)  




Dynasty XXXI ruled for 11 years (343-332)
The Thirty-first Dynasty of Egypt also known as the Second Egyptian Satrapy was effectively a short-living province of the Achaemenid Persian Empire between 343 BCE to 332 BCE. After an interval of independence, during which three indigenous dynasties reigned (the 28th, 29th, and 30th dynasty), Artaxerxes III (358–338 BC) reconquered the Nile valley for a brief second period (343–332 BC), which is called the Thirty-first Dynasty of Egypt.
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Artaxerxes III (343-338)  
Arses (338-336)  
Darius III (336-332)  


Ptolemaic Period302 years       332-30 BC  


Macedonian Dynasty ruled for 27 years (332-305)
The Argead dynasty (Greek: Ἀργεάδαι) was an ancient Greek royal house. They were the ruling dynasty of Macedonia from about 700 to 310 BCE. Their tradition, as described in ancient Greek historiography, traced their origins to Argos, in southern Greece (hence the name Argeads). Initially, the rulers of the homonymous tribe, by the time of Philip II they had expanded their reign further, to include under the rule of Macedonia all Upper Macedonian states. Wikipedia »
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Alexander the Great (332-323)  
Philip Arrhidaeus (323-317)  
Alexander IV (317-310)  




Ptolemaic Dynasty ruled for 275 years (305-30)
The Ptolemaic Kingdom (/ˌtɒləˈmeɪ.ɪk/; Greek: Πτολεμαϊκὴ βασιλεία, Ptolemaïkḕ Basileía) was a Hellenistic kingdom in Egypt. It was ruled by the Ptolemaic dynasty that Ptolemy I Soter founded after the death of Alexander the Great in 323 BC—which ended with the death of Cleopatra VII and the Roman conquest in 30 BC.
The Ptolemaic Kingdom was founded in 305 BC by Ptolemy I Soter, who declared himself Pharaoh of Egypt and created a powerful Hellenistic dynasty that ruled an area stretching from southern Syria to Cyrene and south to Nubia. Alexandria became the capital city and a center of Greek culture and trade. Wikipedia »
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Ptolemy I Soter I (305-285)  
Ptolemy II Philadelphus (285-246)  
Ptolemy III Euergetes I (246-221)  
Ptolemy IV Philopator (221-205)  
Ptolemy V Epiphanes (205-180)  
Ptolemy VI Philometor (180-145)  
Ptolemy VII Neos Philopator (145-145)  
Ptolemy VIII Euergetes II (170-116)  
Ptolemy IX Soter II (116-107)  
Ptolemy X Alexander I (107-88)  
Ptolemy IX Soter II (88-80)  
Ptolemy XI Alexander II (ca 80)  
Ptolemy XII Neos Dionysos (80-51)  
Cleopatra VII Philopator (51-30)  
Ptolemy XIII (51-47)  
Ptolemy XIV (47-44)  
Caesarion (44-30)